Special operations troops in the old Iraqi army were first established when Colonel Khaleel Jassim Al-Dabbagh built the first royal special units in the name of "Queen Alia Forces" in the mid 1950s. It consisted of Sunni and Shia Arabs, as well as other components of the Iraqi population. They were mainly used on an emergency basis to carry out special missions inside of Iraq and outside when the country was in war.
After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Iraqi forces were made redundant by the Invasion forces and because of this, the current Iraqi commando force was recruited from scratch, mostly from Shia Arabs, Kurds and few Sunni. In November 2005, after training in Jordan with Jordanian Special Forces and US Army Special Forces "Green Berets"), the Iraqi Special Operations Force had 1,440 men trained, composed of two combat battalions, considered equal in training and combat effectiveness to an average US Army Infantry battalion, and two support battalions.
In March 2008, the force consisted of a single brigade which in turn was made up of an Iraqi Counter-Terrorism Force (ICTF) battalion, three Commandobattalions, a support battalion and a special reconnaissance unit.
On April 18, 2010, ISOF troops, supported by US troops, carried out a night-time raid on a terrorist safe house near Tikrit. The ISOF surrounded the building and called on them to surrender, but instead the terrorists fired on them. The ISOF returned fire and assaulted the building. The ISOF killed Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, the leaders of ISI, 16 others were also arrested. A US UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter supporting the mission crashed killing a US Army Ranger and wounding the aircrew.
In the Battle of Mosul that began in October 2016, the special ops forces were the first division into the city of Mosul, which had been occupied by ISIL since 2014. On 1 November 2016, the 1st Iraqi Special Forces Division fought its way into the Gogjali quarter of the city, becoming the first Iraqi unit to enter the city during the offensive. On 10 July 2017, the Iraqi prime minister declared the liberation of Mosul from ISIS.'
The 1st Special Operations Brigade is based in Baghdad and has the 1st, 2nd, and 5th Battalions, a brigade support battalion and a training battalion/Iraqi Special Warfare Center and School. The 1st Battalion is the renamed Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion. The 1st Brigade is often referred to as the Golden Division, and previously the Golden Brigade.
The 2nd Special Operations Brigade has four commando battalions [1,440 men], which were at Basra, Mosul, Diyala and Al Asad prior to the formation of the 3rd Brigade. The battalions at Basra and Mosul achieved Iraqi Operational Control (IOC) in January 2008 and conducted local operations. Regional CT Centers (RCCs), similar to Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) organizations, were to be established at all four regional commando bases to develop intelligence on terrorist networks in their region.
The 3rd Brigade was established in Basra by spring 2013, following an order by the prime minister in January 2012 that the forces expand by an additional brigade. It consisted of regional commando battalions in Basra, Diwaniya, Najaf, Maysan, Dhi Qar and Muthana provinces, a recce battalion, and a support battalion.
A Special Tactics unit is also maintained.